Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice

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  1. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 01/01/2017
    This article shows how a research journal can be used as a tool to reflect on issues arising during the phase of data collection. Especially in cross-cultural comparative research, unexpected cultural issues are likely to arise. The most critical is the phase of data collection, where decisions have to be made quickly. This article demonstrates how to establish and maintain a research journal during cross-cultural face-to-face interviewing with entrepreneurs. It provides ten suggestions for 'what' and 'why' to take notes on during five phases of data collection. Furthermore, the article elaborates on how a research journal could be used to deal with emotions as well as methodological and ethical issues that may arise.
    (AN 121014304); ISSN: 21575665
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  2. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 01/01/2017
    We critically examine how an entrepreneurial ecosystem is structured using an exploratory and bottom-up approach. Past studies in this area have discussed the presence of elements in the system or captured the ecosystem as holistically as possible by extending to social, cultural, and institutional dimension. However, we find that such aggregated conceptualizations gave limited understanding to how different elements are connected and constitute the system. Here, we apply a social network approach by analyzing the connections of the ecosystem at multiple layers: (1) among entrepreneurs, (2) among support organizations, and (3) between and among entrepreneurs and key support organizations. Through a series of interviews with entrepreneurs and support organizations in St. Louis, we find that the ways in which support organizations in this region interacted with each other and with entrepreneurs, including explicit cross-organizational collaboration and strategic structuring of resources, significantly impacted the way that entrepreneurs interacted with one another and with organizations, thus deepening our understanding of these connections and identifying intervening points within the ecosystem.
    (AN 121014303); ISSN: 21575665
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  3. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 01/01/2017
    Businesses compete in markets with significant uncertainty and choose disparate competitive strategies. Some attack while others appear to wait. While real options logic has been used to explain market entry and exit decisions under uncertainty, few have tied this logic to the characteristics of ventures' competitive moves. This paper discusses how ventures launch competitive moves, particularly the speed and intensity of action, under contrasting conditions of exogenous uncertainty and first-mover advantage. We argue that the speed and intensity with which entrepreneurs conduct competitive activities are contingent on both their perceptions of the environment and their level of certain cognitive biases. We conducted a two-by-two within-subjects design experiment to test our hypotheses with a sample consisting of service industry professionals.
    (AN 121014305); ISSN: 21575665
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  4. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    After highlighting the importance of small companies to the UK economy, new archival evidence is provided from an exploratory study which investigates the financing and failure of 21,147 UK single owner-managed (OM) corporate start-ups. Relative to comparable US survey evidence, UK OM corporate start-ups rely very heavily on debt financing from inception, with minimal equity being injected by owners and with retained earnings making only a modest contribution to initial financing. Financial gearing is found to be an important determinant of failure after controlling for company-specific and owner characteristics. Interestingly, the results indicate that foreign-owned company start-ups are less failure prone. Based on the empirical findings of the study and that of extant research, a number of suggested avenues for future research are discussed.
    (AN 118972285); ISSN: 21575665
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  5. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    Social enterprises are the products of the social, cultural, commercial, and political expectations of the innovation's range of stakeholders, not solely the vision of the social entrepreneur(s). The power of stakeholders to influence the development of an innovation is drawn from their salience and the resources, access, and/or legitimacy that their support would provide. In this way, the actions of social entrepreneurs represent the interests of communities and it is through processes of resistance, negotiation, and collaboration that the actions of social enterprises become the manifestations of collective social processes. This paper draws on the development of a nascent social enterprise in New Zealand to demonstrate how the effects of its context ultimately shaped its innovative business model. Using an ethnographic methodology, the development of the business model and the partnership through which it formed was examined by the author as a central actor as it unfolded. The case study serves as an illustrative example of the ways in which differing expectations, beliefs, and logics of stakeholders induces particular decisions to be made about the design, resourcing, and strategy of the venture.
    (AN 118972286); ISSN: 21575665
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  6. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    In spite of great progress in energy efficiency and in the development of renewable energy the world is likely to need significant amounts of fossil fuel throughout this century and beyond (the share of fossil fuels in the world mix has remained at about 86% of primary energy from 1990 to today). Gas, being the by far cleanest fossil fuel is the ideal bridging fuel to a world with predominantly renewable supplies. Thanks to the recent perfection of unconventional technologies there is no shortage of gas for this bridging function for at least the next 100-200 years. EASAC and several other European Institutions, notably the German Academy of Technical Sciences (acatech) have in the last few years carried out expert studies to assess the alleged environmental risks of unconventional hydrocarbon exploration and production. All these studies have, in agreement with other competent studies worldwide, come to the conclusion that there exists no scientific reason for a ban on hydraulic fracturing. With good practices, clear standards and adequate control the method causes no enhanced risks to the environment or the health of humans. Special attention has to be paid to the surface handling of drilling and fracking fluids. In Europe alone many thousand frac jobs have been carried out by the industry in the last 60 years without any severe accidents. The mishaps in North America have largely been the cause of unprofessional operations and human error. Especially in places with high air pollution, like many megacities of Asia, natural gas has to be seen as a unique chance to achieve a rapid improvement of the air quality and a significant reduction of CO2 emissions. This is also true for Europe where especially the use of domestic natural gas brings important benefits to the environment. The alternative to gas is in many regions of the world an increased consumption of coal, with all negative consequences.
    (AN 118972282); ISSN: 21575665
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  7. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    The aim of the research is the development of theoretical and methodical bases for determining the feasibility of plant raw materials growing for its further bioconversion into energy resources and technological materials to maximize profit from business activities. Monograph, statistics, modelling and abstract logical methods have been used during the research. Directions of biogas usage have been examined. Biogas yields from different crops have been analyzed. It has been determined that high methane yields can be provided from root crops, grain crops, and several green forage plants. So, forage beet and maize can provide more than 5,500 m³ of biogas per hectare. Attention is paid to the use of by-products of biogas plants, especially carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is an important commodity and can increase profitability of biogas plant operating. It can be used for different purposes (food industry, chemical industry, medicine, fumigation, etc). The most important parameters of the biogas upgrading technologies have been analyzed. If output of an upgrade module is more than 500 nm³/h, investment costs of different available technologies are almost equal. According to experts, it is economically feasible to use anaerobic digestion biogas systems to upgrade biomethane provided their performance is equivalent to 3,000 litres of diesel fuel per day. The economic and mathematical models have been suggested to determine the feasibility of growing plant materials to maximize the gross profit. The target function is the maximum gross income from biogas utilization. It has the following limitations: annual production of biogas, consumption of electricity, heat and motor fuels. The mathematical model takes into account both meeting own requirement and selling surplus energy resources and co-products including carbon dioxide. In case of diesel fuel substitution, an ignition dose of diesel fuels has been considered. The algorithm for making a decision on construction of a biogas plant has been offered.
    (AN 118972275); ISSN: 21575665
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  8. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    This paper explores the concept of the living-dead trap (LDT), a pervasive state of entrepreneurship resulting from the decision to persevere in the operation of a venture in the face of sustained financial underperformance and personal psychological disutility. Financially underperforming firms can survive for long periods, usually with injections of sweat equity and debt, often decimating in the process the capital of their founders and investors as well as the obligations incurred to employees and other creditors. More specifically, this paper suggests a personal composite of specific cognitive and affective processes that leads entrepreneurs to commit to "failing but not failed" projects. That is, to fall into a trap known as the living-dead trap. We posit the living-dead phenomenon as a most pervasive state in firm founding drawing on cognitive and affective perspectives to model the attendant decision-making processes.
    (AN 118972284); ISSN: 21575665
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  9. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    Spirulina platensis biomass is widely applied for different technological purposes. The process of lanthanum, chromium, uranium and vanadium accumulation and biosorption by Spirulina platensis biomass from single- and multi-component systems was studied. The influence of multi-component system on the spirulina biomass growth was less pronounced in comparison with the single-component ones. To trace the uptake of metals by spirulina biomass the neutron activation analysis was used. In the experiment on the accumulation the efficiency of studied metal uptake changes in the following order: La(V) > Cr(III) > U(VI) > V(V) (single-metal solutions) and Cr(III) > La(V) > V(V) > U(VI) (multi-metal system). The process of metals biosorption was studied during a two-hour experiment. The highest rate of metal adsorption for single-component systems was observed for lanthanum and chromium. While for the multi-component system the significant increase of vanadium and chromium content in biomass was observed. In biosorption experiments the rate of biosorption and the Kd value were calculated for each metal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to identify functional groups responsible for metal binding. The results of the present work show that spirulina biomass can be implemented as a low-cost sorbent for metal removal from industrial wastewater.
    (AN 118972283); ISSN: 21575665
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  10. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    The aim of the analysis was to demonstrate the role of reservoirs in shaping nutrient content (nitrates NO3- and phosphates PO43- as well as ammonia NH4+) in the waters of mountain rivers. Three Carpathian rivers with reservoirs in their courses were selected for the study: the Ropa River (Klimkowka reservoir), the Dunajec River (the Czorsztyn-Sromowce Wyzne reservoir complex) and the Raba River (Dobczyce reservoir). The basic criteria for the selection of the study objects for the investigation were: similar hydrological regime of the rivers and diverse parameters and functions of the storage reservoirs. The analysis of nutrient concentration was based on a long-term series of measurements (2004-2013). The reservoirs investigated generally contribute to an increase in nitrates in the rivers flowing below the reservoirs in particular months. The role of reservoirs in shaping phosphate and ammonia levels was not as evident as in the case of nitrates. The reservoirs are merely one of numerous factors that contribute to nutrient levels in the water of the mountains rivers. In the light of the analysis of nutrient concentrations in the surface water tested, it may be concluded that the reservoirs do not cause a clear and permanent deterioration of river water quality.
    (AN 118972276); ISSN: 21575665
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  11. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    The aim of this study is to assess the risk of failure of group water network in case of raw water contamination. The analysis was based on qualitative simulation performed in hydraulic water network model developed in the EPANET software. It was focused on the quantitative description of the consequences of chemically contaminated water. The methodology of risk assessment relies in determining the consequences of the supply water containing contamination threatening the health and lives of water consumers. The research methodology is as follows: development of a hydraulic model of the water pipeline and it's hydraulic verification, computer simulations of contamination propagation, calculating the dose delivered to the i-th section of the water supply system supplying water to Ni recipients and the mass of a substance that enters the body li. The simulation results indicate the spread of contamination that after 24 h covered most of the area supplied with water. The load delivered to the resident obtaining water from the i-th section of the water supply network, Li/Ni, was up to 18 g⋅d-1, at least 15 g⋅d-1 was received by 34.9% of the population, 10-15 g⋅d-1 by 12.5% of the residents, 5-10 g⋅d-1 by 10.7% of the residents, 0-5 g⋅d-1 by 41.7% of the residents and uncontaminated water was delivered to only 13.3% of the consumers. The dose taken by the statistical consumer (calculated as for adults) l is up to 0.8 g for Li/Ni = 18 g⋅d-1 and is proportional to Li/Ni.
    (AN 118972279); ISSN: 21575665
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  12. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    In last years all countries of the European Union experience decrease of water consumption. What is worse, in most cases large European water treatment plants (WTP) have been design and built decades ago, when water consumption was much higher than nowadays. It is a challenging task to adjust WTP's capacity to the current water demand as it is associated with costs and safety issues. Minding that fact, authors decided to propose an new authorial methodology of combined reliability-cost efficiency assessment for water supply system with exceeded redundant capacity, based on new index - unit indicator of reliability-cost efficiency. It included both reliability and costs aspects. It was decided to present the new method on example of the pumping subsystems working for WTP in Poland. The research was based on Activity-Based Life Cycle Costs (AB-LCC) methodology together with two-parametric reliability evaluation. Using real operational and financial data an application of proposed authorial reliability-cost indicator was presented. The reliability-cost efficiency assessment allowed to present how operation of each pumping subsystem influenced global operational costs of WTP. This information is essential for decision-making process for rational management of technical facilities.
    (AN 118972273); ISSN: 21575665
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  13. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    Swimming pools are very expensive, in terms of operation, sports facilities. Therefore, investors and managers of these facilities are looking for methods of reducing the costs of their use. One of the proposed methods is the managing of washings previously discharged to the sanitary sewage system. The assessment of possibilities for reuse of washings from swimming pool filtration system is based on the limits of basic indicators of pollutants in wastewater discharged to water and soil (temperature, pH, TSS, BOD5, COD, TN, TP, free chlorine). The conducted research of washings quality from 26 tested swimming pools have shown that washings quality is dependent on the operating conditions of the pool circuit, including the filter cycle duration and types of filter bed. A direct discharge to water or soil may be impossible due to excessive amounts of total suspended solids (above 35 mg/dm³) and free chlorine concentration (above 0.2 mg Cl2/dm³). However, the quality of supernatant water of washings subjected to sedimentation in the laboratory shows that the washings are suitable for reuse. The installation of settling tanks in swimming pool facilities could relieve the sewage systems and allow for the discharge of supernatant water to surface waters or for the irrigation of green areas in an environmentally friendly way.
    (AN 118972281); ISSN: 21575665
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  14. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    This paper presents results of the studies of ciliate assemblage in benthos of lowland river influenced by sewage discharged from the municipal wastewater treatment plant. During the presented research the 47 ciliate species, including 45 species from the benthos of the river and 18 from the activated sludge of aeration chamber were identified. Only two species registered in the activated sludge were not observed in the river. Against the background of the lowest number of species in the point located in the distance of 50 m below the discharge of sewage the maximum amount and biomass of these species were observed. Whereas, 200 m below the discharge the decrease in number and biomass of ciliate to the level noted for location before the discharge was observed. Thus, generalizing, one may state that influence of municipal WWTP sewage discharge for ciliate assemblage in the river's benthos was clearly visible but local.
    (AN 118972277); ISSN: 21575665
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  15. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    Due to the extreme toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), the remediation of PCDD/F aquifer source zones is greatly needed; however, it is very difficult due to their persistence and recalcitrance. The potential degradability of PCDD/F bound to a real matrix was studied in five systems: iron in a high oxidation state (ferrate), zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI), palladium nanopowder (Pd), a combination of nZVI and Pd, and persulfate (PSF). The results were expressed by comparing the total toxicity of treated and untreated samples. This was done by weighting the concentrations of congeners (determined using a standardized GC/HRMS technique) by their defined toxicity equivalent factors (TEF). The results indicated that only PSF was able to significantly degrade PCDD/F. Toxicity in the system decreased by 65% after PSF treatment. Thus, we conclude that PSF may be a potential solution for in-situ remediation of soil and groundwater at PCDD/F contaminated sites.
    (AN 118972274); ISSN: 21575665
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  16. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    Plants together with water and minerals actively take from the soil heavy metals such as cadmium and lead. The negative role of ions of these metals on plant growth and development depends not only on their concentration in the soil, but also on a number of factors that may affect the transport of minerals from the soil to the roots. The harmful effects of xenobiotics getting from the soil to the plants are limited by the organic compounds contained in the soil, soil structure and pH. Particularly noteworthy are biotic factors, such as bacteria and fungi which greatly limit the translocation of heavy metals. Stream of new scientific reports show that the symbiotic combination of fungi with plant roots so called mycorrhizae is a factor that may be important in reducing the impact of soil contamination by heavy metals. Mycorrhiza by filtering solutions of water and mineral salts stop a considerable amount of heavy metals in the internal mycelium or on its surface. It was proved that plants with properly formed mycorrhiza grow better in hard to renew lands, such as salty, sterile soils contaminated with industrial waste. Questions to which answer was sought in this study are: 1) whether mycorrhizal fungi for many years growing in the contaminated areas have managed to adapt to these adverse conditions and 2) do the same species derived from clean areas are less resistant to contamination by heavy metals? Stated problems tried to be solved based on the fruiting bodies of fungi collected from ectomycorrhizal fungi picked from the areas contaminated by industrial emissions and areas free of contamination. The interaction of cadmium and lead ions on the growth of mycelium was examined by plate method and binding of heavy metals in fruiting structures of fungi were done by colorimetric method with use of methylene blue. It has been shown that the fungal resistance, even of the same species, to high concentration of heavy metals varies depending on the origin of symbiont. Isolated fungi from contaminated areas are better adapted to high concentrations of xenobiotics. Ability to bind cadmium and lead to fruiting bodies of fungi varies.
    (AN 118972272); ISSN: 21575665
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  17. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    Soil and atmosphere boundary layer (ABL) interact with each other and influence physical processes in soil and atmosphere. Quality of numerical weather forecast depends on good mapping of complex soil process (microphysics processes in soil, fluid dynamics in porous media, soil dynamics, water cycle in soil and soil-plant-water relation, thermal processes in the soil etc.) in parameterization soil schemes. Current parameterizations of soil physical processes in TERRA_ML (multilayer soil module of the COSMO meteorological model) were prepared 30 years ago for numerical model with poor resolution. Nowadays operationally numerical models work with much better resolution. So, previous parameterization must have been improved or prepared from the beginning if it is expected improvement quality of numerical weather forecast. The influence of changing parameterization of water flux through the soil for "bare soil" case on vertical meteorological profiles is presented in this paper. This influence can be seen not only in weather forecasts, but also in any areas where the results of meteorological model(s) are used, like decision support systems in emergency situations or modeling of dispersion of air pollutants.
    (AN 118972278); ISSN: 21575665
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  18. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    Investigations concerning the effect of hemp oil on mortality of the foxglove aphid (Aulacorthum solani Kalt.) and the two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) were conducted in the years 2014-2015. The tested essential oil was produced at the Institute of Natural Fibers and Medicinal Plants in Poznan. It was obtained by steam distillation of fresh panicles of Polish hemp cultivars, Beniko, Bialobrzeskie and Silesia, with low cannabinoid contents, including THC (max. 0.2% plant fresh matter). The effect of essential oil on the investigated pests was determined following the application of aqueous emulsion solution at 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1%. Mortality of agrophages was determined 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment. In this study a very high efficacy of the essential oil produced from hemp panicles was found in the reduction of population size of the foxglove aphid (A. solani). Already at 24 h after its application at a concentration of 0.1% pest mortality rate was 98.20%, while after 48 h it reached 100%. A significant, although much lesser effect of oil on the aphid population was recorded when applying it at 0.05%, with the mortality rate of the true bug after 72 h amounting to 57.33%. Essential oil also showed an effect on the two spotted spider mite (T. urticae). Following the oil application, irrespective of its concentration, a significant effect on mite mortality was observed. Its action was the strongest at its highest concentration, ie 0.1%, while mortality of the pest at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment was 83.28, 95.83 and 98.72%, respectively.
    (AN 118972280); ISSN: 21575665
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  19. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 07/01/2016
    The article offers information related to the "Entrepreneurship Research Journal" which includes new forum for scholarly discussion on entrepreneurs and their activities, contexts, processes and strategies.
    (AN 116618862); ISSN: 21575665
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  20. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 07/01/2016
    Relationships and networks are important to how entrepreneurs create value. However, many aspects about relationships and networks remain poorly understood because their characteristics are often reduced to one-dimensional variables or dichotomous measures. This paper unpacks the concept of multiplexity and proposes a hierarchy of four different levels ( social, relational, strategic, and closed). Each level is associated with a different level of dynamism which governs how rapidly entrepreneurs can alter their network. The hierarchy of multiplexity and associated levels of dynamism, have implications regarding different value creation processes that are associated with these network conditions.
    (AN 116618864); ISSN: 21575665
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  21. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 07/01/2016
    Although there is a growing body of literature linking human resource management (HRM) and corporate entrepreneurship (CE), there is still insufficient understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relationship. This paper focuses on middle managers' knowledge-sharing behavior as an important mediator in the HRM-CE relationship. We test our hypotheses using data collected from 163 Malaysian middle managers. The paper finds that about a third of the relationship between High-Performance Human Resource Practices and CE can be accounted for by middle managers' knowledge-sharing behavior. The findings provide quantitative empirical support for theoretical claims of the importance of middle managers' knowledge sharing in fostering CE, and for the importance of HRM in fostering such knowledge sharing. The study contributes to the literature on the HRM-CE relationship by disentangling the underlying mechanisms and by providing empirical support for this relationship in a Malaysian context.
    (AN 116618863); ISSN: 21575665
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  22. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 07/01/2016
    The objective of this article is to explore and explain how entrepreneurs develop new business models for new ventures. Though highly topical, there is little solid empirical knowledge of this issue. Findings from multiple case studies of firms operating in the Australian cloud-computing ecosystem reveal that developing a new business model involves three phases. In the first phase (business modelling ideation (BMI)), various ideas for a viable business model are generated and the most viable one is chosen. The strategic consensus and commitment are generated in the second phase, labelled as the 'business modelling strategic commitment' (BMSC). The third phase, labelled as the 'business model actualization' (BMAC) is the market-testing phase where the business model is reified or actualized. The theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed and several directions for future research are suggested.
    (AN 116618865); ISSN: 21575665
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  23. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 04/01/2016
    The front cover of "Entrepreneurship Research Journal" is presented.
    (AN 114190522); ISSN: 21575665
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  24. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 04/01/2016
    Once viewed at opposite ends of a spectrum, financial investment and philanthropy are becoming partners in social enterprise development. Impact investing (II) is one of the most innovative ways to bring the resources of the world's financial markets to the world's seemingly intractable problems. Since its emergence from the socially responsible investment field, interest in II has grown substantially among a wide variety of practitioners and service providers throughout the world, although scholarly work in the field is scarce. To stimulate interest in this topic, this paper provides a primer and review of the current knowledge base in II. Our wide search of resources on the topic revealed potential contributions from the legal, financial, social entrepreneurship, and project management literature. We found several themes in our synthesis of the reports, articles and surveys included in our study, and several areas where gaps were evident. In general, practitioners focused on the opportunities of II and its potential, while few studies addressed the challenges associated with its implementation. Because II is not a panacea and is inappropriate for many social enterprises, opportunities exist for studies that rigorously examine the applicability and efficacy of II initiatives. This review of the literature provides scholars with an overview of II and a large number of potential resources to aid in their efforts to advance the knowledge base in the field.
    (AN 114190525); ISSN: 21575665
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  25. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 04/01/2016
    There is widespread recognition of the vital role small and medium enterprises (SME) play in the sustainability of the Canadian rural landscape. However, rural entrepreneurs face barriers and challenges throughout the start-up and growth stages of their ventures. The rapid development of e-commerce, coupled with increasing big-box competition and shifting demographics challenge the sustainability of rural SMEs. The literature recognizes gaps in SME owner capability, pertaining to business planning, the use of financial information, the implementation of Information Technologies, and funding. It should be noted that the effectiveness of Government policies regarding support for training in these areas through publically funded agencies is well documented. However, research regarding the effectiveness of these agencies in reaching and meeting the needs of rural venture owners is primarily restricted to funding requirements. This paper examines the utilization and satisfaction of venture support agencies and community organizations by rural SME owners in 14 communities through a Business Expansion and Retention (BR&E) research project conducted in Alberta, Canada. The results indicated that agency usage can be effectively predicted by firm size, degree of localization, and planning. Results indicate that while many owners identified the need for assistance in training and funding, the utilization of support agencies, underscored by the lack of user satisfaction, may hinder rather than enhance venture viability and growth. The implications for government policy are discussed in the context of enhancing the effectiveness of support agencies, thereby contributing to the viability of ventures and the sustainability of rural communities.
    (AN 114190524); ISSN: 21575665
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