Entrepreneurship Research Journal

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  2. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 07/01/2017
    Experiential processing of events has been argued to result in affective reactions -emotions and feelings - which in turn influence judgment and decision states. Research also suggests that specific experiential processing may carry action-oriented appraisal dimensions that act as implicit perceptual lenses for interpreting subsequent experiences. However, founders with different founding goals may self-select into different founding trajectories that provide them with different experiences and therefore different affective reactions. Therefore, we develop a conceptual model to study experience or event-generated affect within the domain of two common venture goals: small business vs high growth venture goals. Our model unearths insights into affect research in entrepreneurship. Implications for research and practice are also provided.
    (AN 124173330); ISSN: 21946175
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  3. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 07/01/2017
    Although the contribution of creative industries to world economy has been widely acknowledged in the last few decades, their failure rate is still high and frustrates creative entrepreneurs. However, few empirical studies have been done to explore what causes creative entrepreneurs' intention to quit. This paper, therefore, aims to draw upon the theories of motivation and entrepreneurship to offer a better understanding of entrepreneurs' withdrawal intention. We incorporate the theory of motivation, creativity, and opportunity to realize their inter-play roles in reducing entrepreneurs' intention to quit in creative industry sector. A sample of 272 creative entrepreneurs in Taiwan's creative industries is used to test the framework we propose. Results show that entrepreneurial creativity and opportunity recognition enhance entrepreneurs' motivation by satisfying the need for basic finance, need for work-life equilibrium, need for social reputation, and need for career achievement. Moreover, we found that entrepreneurs' motivation in need for work-life equilibrium and need for career achievement reduces their intention to quit.
    (AN 124173332); ISSN: 21946175
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  4. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 07/01/2017
    Understand the uncertainties and evaluate the opportunity are essential to support the number of new businesses launched every day. The aim of this paper is to analyse the uncertainty factors related to the evaluation of opportunity in software entrepreneurship. This study is concerned with developing a simple and effective framework for software entrepreneurs to evaluate opportunities for their projected venture and predict its success in an uncertain environment. The paper begins with identifying uncertainty factors relevant to software start-ups. Then, we introduce the Opportunity Evaluation Model to evaluate the scope of opportunities as moderated by the uncertainties using External Factor Evaluation (EFE) and Internal Factor Evaluation (IFE) matrix methods. The model outputs Internal-External (I-E) matrix containing graphical representation of the opportunity position, with the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats identified from the inputs. Two case studies with different factor ratings for uncertainties are demonstrated using the model with a detailed explanation of the procedure of implementation. The article ends with a note on the efficacy of the framework and reiterates the importance of research examining opportunities in relation with surrounding uncertainties. Early recognition and management of uncertainties identified in this paper can increase the chance of success for new software ventures.
    (AN 124173331); ISSN: 21946175
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  5. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 04/01/2017
    The purpose of this paper is to explore the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing an appreciative inquiry approach for entrepreneurship research within the family business context. We argue that there is an opportunity to shift the focus of family business studies from a"deficit oriented approach" toward adopting a positive organizational lens through"appreciative inquiry" principles. We review the background to appreciative inquiry including from its inception in the 1980s; the definitions, principles, models for appreciative inquiry; and the theoretical foundations of the appreciative inquiry approach. We will draw on examples from a recent study that applied appreciative inquiry principles to investigate what worked well in entrepreneurial family businesses. By exploring the generative characteristics, we are better placed to understand the strengths of a family firm. This leads to research that presents what works well, and can be built on in family businesses, rather than objectifying the problems to be solved. Our contribution lies in how, as a positive organizational lens, appreciative inquiry principles inform research in the entrepreneurial family business context. In practice, finding the advantages and disadvantages of using an appreciative protocol could lead to future studies adopting this lens, and possibly past studies being reinvigorated with a shift of focus.
    (AN 122939072); ISSN: 21946175
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  6. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 04/01/2017
    Crowdfunding is an emerging phenomenon that has attracted significant interest from scholars and practitioners alike, mainly due to its appeal as an alternative source of funding. As crowdfunding has grown exponentially, so have the associated challenges and opportunities. In this conceptual paper, we define crowdfunding; discuss its characteristics, related terminologies, key elements and ethical issues. We also propose a typology for crowdfunding and indicate various issues associated with it. The final section includes the implications of this study and suggestions for future research. This paper aims to inspire a scholarly debate and further develop the theoretical foundation of the crowdfunding literature. This may also prompt practitioners to take note of the emerging concerns as the crowdfunding phenomenon is transforming from a marginal to a mainstream discipline.
    (AN 122939073); ISSN: 21946175
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  7. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 04/01/2017
    Women as the emergent economic power influence the shape of the global economy. For the prosperity of the nation, it is important that women should be involved in the job creation activities rather than providing with the job opportunities, as businesses are more time flexible than being an employee especially for women; where they are playing multiple roles at a time. In order to work on the efficiency and efficacy of the entire women, this paper studied the relationship between successful antecedent such as motivation, personality trait, creativity, access to finance, family factors and success of women entrepreneurial endeavors was being assessed. For this purpose data were collected from women entrepreneurs through a purposive sampling technique by using five likert scale questionnaire. Analysis of the study revealed that antecedents plays a positive role in the success of women entrepreneurial endeavors, however family support also appears to have a strong mediation effect on the success of women entrepreneurial endeavors but a negative value of beta indicates that women in underdeveloped society generally are not warmly encouraged by the family to opt for entrepreneurial endeavors. So, there is a need to work on this aspect in order to encourage other female participation in the economic growth.
    (AN 122939074); ISSN: 21946175
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  8. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 01/01/2017
    This article shows how a research journal can be used as a tool to reflect on issues arising during the phase of data collection. Especially in cross-cultural comparative research, unexpected cultural issues are likely to arise. The most critical is the phase of data collection, where decisions have to be made quickly. This article demonstrates how to establish and maintain a research journal during cross-cultural face-to-face interviewing with entrepreneurs. It provides ten suggestions for 'what' and 'why' to take notes on during five phases of data collection. Furthermore, the article elaborates on how a research journal could be used to deal with emotions as well as methodological and ethical issues that may arise.
    (AN 121014304); ISSN: 21946175
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  9. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 01/01/2017
    We critically examine how an entrepreneurial ecosystem is structured using an exploratory and bottom-up approach. Past studies in this area have discussed the presence of elements in the system or captured the ecosystem as holistically as possible by extending to social, cultural, and institutional dimension. However, we find that such aggregated conceptualizations gave limited understanding to how different elements are connected and constitute the system. Here, we apply a social network approach by analyzing the connections of the ecosystem at multiple layers: (1) among entrepreneurs, (2) among support organizations, and (3) between and among entrepreneurs and key support organizations. Through a series of interviews with entrepreneurs and support organizations in St. Louis, we find that the ways in which support organizations in this region interacted with each other and with entrepreneurs, including explicit cross-organizational collaboration and strategic structuring of resources, significantly impacted the way that entrepreneurs interacted with one another and with organizations, thus deepening our understanding of these connections and identifying intervening points within the ecosystem.
    (AN 121014303); ISSN: 21946175
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  10. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 01/01/2017
    Businesses compete in markets with significant uncertainty and choose disparate competitive strategies. Some attack while others appear to wait. While real options logic has been used to explain market entry and exit decisions under uncertainty, few have tied this logic to the characteristics of ventures' competitive moves. This paper discusses how ventures launch competitive moves, particularly the speed and intensity of action, under contrasting conditions of exogenous uncertainty and first-mover advantage. We argue that the speed and intensity with which entrepreneurs conduct competitive activities are contingent on both their perceptions of the environment and their level of certain cognitive biases. We conducted a two-by-two within-subjects design experiment to test our hypotheses with a sample consisting of service industry professionals.
    (AN 121014305); ISSN: 21946175
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  11. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    After highlighting the importance of small companies to the UK economy, new archival evidence is provided from an exploratory study which investigates the financing and failure of 21,147 UK single owner-managed (OM) corporate start-ups. Relative to comparable US survey evidence, UK OM corporate start-ups rely very heavily on debt financing from inception, with minimal equity being injected by owners and with retained earnings making only a modest contribution to initial financing. Financial gearing is found to be an important determinant of failure after controlling for company-specific and owner characteristics. Interestingly, the results indicate that foreign-owned company start-ups are less failure prone. Based on the empirical findings of the study and that of extant research, a number of suggested avenues for future research are discussed.
    (AN 118972285); ISSN: 21946175
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  12. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    Social enterprises are the products of the social, cultural, commercial, and political expectations of the innovation's range of stakeholders, not solely the vision of the social entrepreneur(s). The power of stakeholders to influence the development of an innovation is drawn from their salience and the resources, access, and/or legitimacy that their support would provide. In this way, the actions of social entrepreneurs represent the interests of communities and it is through processes of resistance, negotiation, and collaboration that the actions of social enterprises become the manifestations of collective social processes. This paper draws on the development of a nascent social enterprise in New Zealand to demonstrate how the effects of its context ultimately shaped its innovative business model. Using an ethnographic methodology, the development of the business model and the partnership through which it formed was examined by the author as a central actor as it unfolded. The case study serves as an illustrative example of the ways in which differing expectations, beliefs, and logics of stakeholders induces particular decisions to be made about the design, resourcing, and strategy of the venture.
    (AN 118972286); ISSN: 21946175
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  13. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    In spite of great progress in energy efficiency and in the development of renewable energy the world is likely to need significant amounts of fossil fuel throughout this century and beyond (the share of fossil fuels in the world mix has remained at about 86% of primary energy from 1990 to today). Gas, being the by far cleanest fossil fuel is the ideal bridging fuel to a world with predominantly renewable supplies. Thanks to the recent perfection of unconventional technologies there is no shortage of gas for this bridging function for at least the next 100-200 years. EASAC and several other European Institutions, notably the German Academy of Technical Sciences (acatech) have in the last few years carried out expert studies to assess the alleged environmental risks of unconventional hydrocarbon exploration and production. All these studies have, in agreement with other competent studies worldwide, come to the conclusion that there exists no scientific reason for a ban on hydraulic fracturing. With good practices, clear standards and adequate control the method causes no enhanced risks to the environment or the health of humans. Special attention has to be paid to the surface handling of drilling and fracking fluids. In Europe alone many thousand frac jobs have been carried out by the industry in the last 60 years without any severe accidents. The mishaps in North America have largely been the cause of unprofessional operations and human error. Especially in places with high air pollution, like many megacities of Asia, natural gas has to be seen as a unique chance to achieve a rapid improvement of the air quality and a significant reduction of CO2 emissions. This is also true for Europe where especially the use of domestic natural gas brings important benefits to the environment. The alternative to gas is in many regions of the world an increased consumption of coal, with all negative consequences.
    (AN 118972282); ISSN: 21946175
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  14. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    The aim of the research is the development of theoretical and methodical bases for determining the feasibility of plant raw materials growing for its further bioconversion into energy resources and technological materials to maximize profit from business activities. Monograph, statistics, modelling and abstract logical methods have been used during the research. Directions of biogas usage have been examined. Biogas yields from different crops have been analyzed. It has been determined that high methane yields can be provided from root crops, grain crops, and several green forage plants. So, forage beet and maize can provide more than 5,500 m³ of biogas per hectare. Attention is paid to the use of by-products of biogas plants, especially carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is an important commodity and can increase profitability of biogas plant operating. It can be used for different purposes (food industry, chemical industry, medicine, fumigation, etc). The most important parameters of the biogas upgrading technologies have been analyzed. If output of an upgrade module is more than 500 nm³/h, investment costs of different available technologies are almost equal. According to experts, it is economically feasible to use anaerobic digestion biogas systems to upgrade biomethane provided their performance is equivalent to 3,000 litres of diesel fuel per day. The economic and mathematical models have been suggested to determine the feasibility of growing plant materials to maximize the gross profit. The target function is the maximum gross income from biogas utilization. It has the following limitations: annual production of biogas, consumption of electricity, heat and motor fuels. The mathematical model takes into account both meeting own requirement and selling surplus energy resources and co-products including carbon dioxide. In case of diesel fuel substitution, an ignition dose of diesel fuels has been considered. The algorithm for making a decision on construction of a biogas plant has been offered.
    (AN 118972275); ISSN: 21946175
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  15. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    This paper explores the concept of the living-dead trap (LDT), a pervasive state of entrepreneurship resulting from the decision to persevere in the operation of a venture in the face of sustained financial underperformance and personal psychological disutility. Financially underperforming firms can survive for long periods, usually with injections of sweat equity and debt, often decimating in the process the capital of their founders and investors as well as the obligations incurred to employees and other creditors. More specifically, this paper suggests a personal composite of specific cognitive and affective processes that leads entrepreneurs to commit to "failing but not failed" projects. That is, to fall into a trap known as the living-dead trap. We posit the living-dead phenomenon as a most pervasive state in firm founding drawing on cognitive and affective perspectives to model the attendant decision-making processes.
    (AN 118972284); ISSN: 21946175
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  16. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    Spirulina platensis biomass is widely applied for different technological purposes. The process of lanthanum, chromium, uranium and vanadium accumulation and biosorption by Spirulina platensis biomass from single- and multi-component systems was studied. The influence of multi-component system on the spirulina biomass growth was less pronounced in comparison with the single-component ones. To trace the uptake of metals by spirulina biomass the neutron activation analysis was used. In the experiment on the accumulation the efficiency of studied metal uptake changes in the following order: La(V) > Cr(III) > U(VI) > V(V) (single-metal solutions) and Cr(III) > La(V) > V(V) > U(VI) (multi-metal system). The process of metals biosorption was studied during a two-hour experiment. The highest rate of metal adsorption for single-component systems was observed for lanthanum and chromium. While for the multi-component system the significant increase of vanadium and chromium content in biomass was observed. In biosorption experiments the rate of biosorption and the Kd value were calculated for each metal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to identify functional groups responsible for metal binding. The results of the present work show that spirulina biomass can be implemented as a low-cost sorbent for metal removal from industrial wastewater.
    (AN 118972283); ISSN: 21946175
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  17. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    The aim of the analysis was to demonstrate the role of reservoirs in shaping nutrient content (nitrates NO3- and phosphates PO43- as well as ammonia NH4+) in the waters of mountain rivers. Three Carpathian rivers with reservoirs in their courses were selected for the study: the Ropa River (Klimkowka reservoir), the Dunajec River (the Czorsztyn-Sromowce Wyzne reservoir complex) and the Raba River (Dobczyce reservoir). The basic criteria for the selection of the study objects for the investigation were: similar hydrological regime of the rivers and diverse parameters and functions of the storage reservoirs. The analysis of nutrient concentration was based on a long-term series of measurements (2004-2013). The reservoirs investigated generally contribute to an increase in nitrates in the rivers flowing below the reservoirs in particular months. The role of reservoirs in shaping phosphate and ammonia levels was not as evident as in the case of nitrates. The reservoirs are merely one of numerous factors that contribute to nutrient levels in the water of the mountains rivers. In the light of the analysis of nutrient concentrations in the surface water tested, it may be concluded that the reservoirs do not cause a clear and permanent deterioration of river water quality.
    (AN 118972276); ISSN: 21946175
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  18. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    The aim of this study is to assess the risk of failure of group water network in case of raw water contamination. The analysis was based on qualitative simulation performed in hydraulic water network model developed in the EPANET software. It was focused on the quantitative description of the consequences of chemically contaminated water. The methodology of risk assessment relies in determining the consequences of the supply water containing contamination threatening the health and lives of water consumers. The research methodology is as follows: development of a hydraulic model of the water pipeline and it's hydraulic verification, computer simulations of contamination propagation, calculating the dose delivered to the i-th section of the water supply system supplying water to Ni recipients and the mass of a substance that enters the body li. The simulation results indicate the spread of contamination that after 24 h covered most of the area supplied with water. The load delivered to the resident obtaining water from the i-th section of the water supply network, Li/Ni, was up to 18 g⋅d-1, at least 15 g⋅d-1 was received by 34.9% of the population, 10-15 g⋅d-1 by 12.5% of the residents, 5-10 g⋅d-1 by 10.7% of the residents, 0-5 g⋅d-1 by 41.7% of the residents and uncontaminated water was delivered to only 13.3% of the consumers. The dose taken by the statistical consumer (calculated as for adults) l is up to 0.8 g for Li/Ni = 18 g⋅d-1 and is proportional to Li/Ni.
    (AN 118972279); ISSN: 21946175
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  19. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    In last years all countries of the European Union experience decrease of water consumption. What is worse, in most cases large European water treatment plants (WTP) have been design and built decades ago, when water consumption was much higher than nowadays. It is a challenging task to adjust WTP's capacity to the current water demand as it is associated with costs and safety issues. Minding that fact, authors decided to propose an new authorial methodology of combined reliability-cost efficiency assessment for water supply system with exceeded redundant capacity, based on new index - unit indicator of reliability-cost efficiency. It included both reliability and costs aspects. It was decided to present the new method on example of the pumping subsystems working for WTP in Poland. The research was based on Activity-Based Life Cycle Costs (AB-LCC) methodology together with two-parametric reliability evaluation. Using real operational and financial data an application of proposed authorial reliability-cost indicator was presented. The reliability-cost efficiency assessment allowed to present how operation of each pumping subsystem influenced global operational costs of WTP. This information is essential for decision-making process for rational management of technical facilities.
    (AN 118972273); ISSN: 21946175
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  20. Entrepreneurship Research Journal; 10/01/2016
    Swimming pools are very expensive, in terms of operation, sports facilities. Therefore, investors and managers of these facilities are looking for methods of reducing the costs of their use. One of the proposed methods is the managing of washings previously discharged to the sanitary sewage system. The assessment of possibilities for reuse of washings from swimming pool filtration system is based on the limits of basic indicators of pollutants in wastewater discharged to water and soil (temperature, pH, TSS, BOD5, COD, TN, TP, free chlorine). The conducted research of washings quality from 26 tested swimming pools have shown that washings quality is dependent on the operating conditions of the pool circuit, including the filter cycle duration and types of filter bed. A direct discharge to water or soil may be impossible due to excessive amounts of total suspended solids (above 35 mg/dm³) and free chlorine concentration (above 0.2 mg Cl2/dm³). However, the quality of supernatant water of washings subjected to sedimentation in the laboratory shows that the washings are suitable for reuse. The installation of settling tanks in swimming pool facilities could relieve the sewage systems and allow for the discharge of supernatant water to surface waters or for the irrigation of green areas in an environmentally friendly way.
    (AN 118972281); ISSN: 21946175
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